Document Type : Original Article


1 International Rice Research Institute, Bangladesh office.

2 Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Jashore, Bangladesh.

3 Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.

4 The Centre for Crop Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia.


Herbicides have increasingly become a key component on crop production system because they offer the easiest, cheapest and timely weed management, resulting in higher yield and profit. A single herbicide application in field conditions in most of the cases is not enough to control diverse weed flora. In such situations, tank mixtures of herbicides may provide a prime option to control a broad spectrum of weeds. Cyperus rotundus L., a world’s most tenacious weed, is becoming a problematic weed in conservation crop production systems. A two-year study (2013/14 and 2014/15) was established in South-West Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of application timings and sole and tank mixtures of 2,4-D and ethoxysulfuron herbicides on weed suppression and performance of wheat. 2,4-D and ethoxysulfuron were applied solely and as tank mixtures at 10, 20, and 30 days after sowing (DAS) and these treatments were compared with completely weedy and weed-free treatments. In controlling weeds, tank mixtures of 2,4-D and ethoxysulfuron performed better than their sole application at any application timing; however, at the earliest time (10 DAS), the combination created toxicity to wheat plants, resulting in 10-22% and 11-32% less wheat plant density and biomass, respectively, compared with their sole application. Tank-mix herbicides reduced C. rotundus biomass by 87-91%, 88-100%, and 79-80% when applied at 10, 20, and 30 DAS, respectively, compared with the weedy plots. The plots applied with tank mixtures at 20 and 30 DAS produced wheat grain yield similar to that of weed-free plots, indicating that the tank mixture of 2,4-D plus ethoxysulfuron herbicides is the best option to control weeds without any toxicity to wheat plants.


Ahmed S, Awan T.H, Salim M, Chauhan B.S. 2015. Economics of nitrogen and integrated weed management in dry-seeded rice. J Ani Plant Sci 25: 1675-1684.
Ahmed S, Chauhan B.S. 2014. Performance of different herbicides in dry-seeded rice in Bangladesh. Sci World J. 729418.
Ahmed S, Islam M.R, Alam M.M, Haque M.M, Karim A.J.M.S. 2011. Rice production and profitability as influenced by integrated crop and resources management. Eco-frien. Agril J. 11: 720-725.
Ahmed S, Salim M, Chauhan B.S. 2014. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE. 9(7): e101919.
Alam M.J, Humphreys E, Sarkar M.A.R, Sudhir-Yadav. 2017. Intensification and diversification increase land and water productivity and profitability of rice-based cropping systems on the High Ganges River Floodplain of Bangladesh. Field Crops Res. 209: 10-26.
Anwar M.P, Juraimi A.S, Mohamed M.T.M, Uddin M.K, Samedani, B, Puteh A, Man A. 2013. Integration of agronomic practices with herbicides for sustainable weed management in aerobic rice. Sci World J. 916408.
BARI. 2017. Krishi projuktihatboi (Handbook on Agro-technology), 7th edition, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701. pp. 2-3.
Chauhan B.S, Abugho S.B. 2012. Effect of growth stage on the efficacy of post-emergence herbicides on four weed species of direct-seeded rice. Sci World J. 123071.
Chauhan B.S, Ahmed A, Awan T.H, Jabran K, Manalil S. 2015. Integrated weed management approach to improve weed control efficiencies for sustainable rice production in dry-seeded systems. Crop Prot. 71: 19-24.
Costa A.G.F, Sofiatti V, Maciel C.D.G, Lira A.J.S, Cordeiro J.A.F, Silva R.L.M. 2015. Weed management with herbicides applied in pre and post-emergence on castor crop. Planta Daninha. 33(3): 551-559.
Damalas C.A. 2004. Herbicide tank mixtures: common interactions. Int J Agri Biol. 6: 209-212.
Diggle A.J, Neve P, Smith F.P. 2003. Herbicides used in combination can reduce the probability of herbicide resistance. Weed Res. 43: 371-382.
Fahad S, Nie L, Rahman A, Chen C, Wu C, Saud S, Huang J. 2013. Comparative efficacy of different herbicides for weed management and yield attributes in wheat. Am J Plant Sci. 4: 1241-1245.
Friesen S.L.J, Ferguson G.M, Hall C. 2000. Management strategies for attenuating herbicide resistance: untoward consequences of their promotion. Crop Prot. 19: 891-895.
Green J.M, Owen M.D.K. 2011. Herbicide resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management. J Agric Food Chem. 58: 5819–5829.
Hossain A, Silva J.A.T.D. 2013. Wheat production in Bangladesh: its future in the light of global warming. AoB Plants. 5:pls042.
Hossain A, Chowdhury M.A.S, Malaker P.K, Mandal M.S.N, Sarker M.A.Z. 2010. Efficacy and economics of herbicides against narrow and broad-leaved weeds of wheat. Ban J Weed Sci. 1(1): 71-79.
Hossain M.I, Barma N.C.D, Islam A.T.M.R, Uddin M.Z, Rahman M.M. 2009. Effect of newly developed herbicides on the growth and yield of wheat. Int J Sustain Crop Prod. 4: 1-4.
Jhala A.J, Ramirez A.H.M, Knezevic S.Z, Damme P.V, Singh, M.S. 2013. Herbicide tank mixtures for broad-spectrum weed control in Florida Citrus. Weed Technol. 27: 129–137.
Joshi A.K, Mishra B, Chatrath R, Ferrara G.F, Singh R.P. 2007. Wheat improvement in India: present status, emerging challenges and future prospects. Euphytica. 157(3): 431–446.
 Kamrozzaman M.M, Khan M.A.H, Ahmed S, Ruhul A.F.M.Q. 2015.Effect of herbicide in controlling broadleaf and sedge weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Agricul. 13(2): 54-61.
Khan M, Haq N. 2002. Wheat crop yield loss assessment due to weeds. Sarhad J Agric.18: 449-453.
Mahajan G, Chauhan B.S. 2015. Weed control in dry direct-seeded rice using tank mixtures of herbicides in South Asia. Crop Prot.72: 90-96.
Mahajan G, Chauhan B.S, Johnson D.E. 2009. Weed management in aerobic rice in north-western Indo-Gangetic Plains. J Crop Improv. 4: 366-382.
Mahmood A, Iqbal J, Ashraf M. 2012. Comparative efficacy of post emergence herbicides against broad leaved weeds in wheat (TriricumAestivum L.) under rice-wheat cropping system. J Agril Res. 50: 71-78.
Maity S.K, Mukherjee P.K. 2008. Integrated weed management in dry direct-seeded rainy season rice (Oryza sativa). Indian J Agron. 53: 116-120.
Mamun A.A., Salim M. 1989. Evaluation of Isoproturon, selective herbicides, for weed control in Wheat. Bangladesh J AgriSci. 16: 93-99.
McLachlan S.M, Swanton C.J, Weise S.F. 1993. Effect of temperature and irradiance on the rate of leaf appearance (RLA) in redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexusL.). Weed Sci. 37: 84-92.
Miller M.R, Norsworthy J.K. 2015. Evaluation of herbicide programs for use in a 2,4-D–resistant soybean technology for control of glyphosate-resistant palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Weed Technol. 30: 366-376.
Mishra J.S. 1997. Critical period of weed competition and losses due to weeds in major field crops. Farmers Parliament. 23: 19-20.
Mustari S, Bari M.N, Islam M.R, Karim A.J.M.S. 2014. Evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control efficiency and yield of wheat. J Sci Founda. 12: 27-33.
Ranjit J.D. 2002. Response of wheat weeds to straw mulch in mid plants. Proceedings of International Seminar on Mountains- Kathmandu, March 6-8. pp. 372-377.
Reynolds M.P, Pietragalla J, Braun H.J. 2008. International symposium on wheat yield potential: challenges to international wheat breeding. CIMMYT, Mexico. p. 197.
Safdar M.E, Asif M, Ali A, Aziz A, Yasin M, Aziz M, Afzal M, Ali A. 2011. Comparative efficacy of different weed management strategies in wheat. Chilean J Agril Res. 7: 195-204.
Schulz B, Segobye K. 2016. 2,4-D transport and herbicide resistance in weed. J Experiment Bot. 67: 3177–3179.
Shamsudduha M, Chandler R.E, Taylor R.G, Ahmed K.M. 2009. Recent trends in groundwater levels in a highly seasonal hydrological system: The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci. 13: 2373–2385.
Sharma S.N, Singh R.K. 2010. Weed management in rice-wheat cropping stem under conservation tillage. Ind J Weed Sci. 42: 23- 29.
Shaw D.R, Arnold J.C. 2002. Weed control from herbicide combinations with glyphosate. Weed Technol. 16: 1–6.
Shyam S, Singh R. 2015. Control of nutsedge and other weeds in sugarcane with ethoxysulfuron. Ind J Weed Sci. 47: 43–45.
Singh S, Bhushan L, Ladha J.K, Gupta R.K, Rao A.N, Sivaprasad B. 2006. Weed management in dry-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in the furrow-irrigated raised-bed planting system. Crop Prot. 25: 487–495.
Singh S, Singh M. 2004. Effect of growth stage on trifloxysulfuron and glyphosate efficacy in twelve weed species of citrus groves. Weed Technol. 18: 1031–1036.
Swinton S.M, Buhler D.D, Forcella F, Gunsolus J.L, King R.P. 1994. Estimation of crop yield loss due to interference by multiple weed species. Weed Sci. 42: 103–109.
Usman K, Khan M.A. 2009. Economic evaluation of weed management through tillage, herbicides and hand weeding in irrigated wheat. Pak J Weed Sci Res. 15: 199-208.
Waddington S.R, Li X, Dixon J, Hyman G, de Vicente C.M. 2010. Getting the focus right: production constraint for fix major food crops in Asian and African farming systems. Food Security. 2: 27-48.
Wilson R.G, Westra P. 1991. Wild-proso millet (Paniucummiliaceum) interference in corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci. 39: 217–220.