Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Plant Science, Burie Campus, Debre Markos University; Ethiopia

2 Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Bahir Dar University; Ethiopia

Abstract

Water hyacinth is free-floating, stoloniferous and perennial herb. It is an aquatic invasive species; native to South America and most aggressive invasive species worldwide. It profoundly invaded the tropical and subtropical region of the world, as a result of ornamental properties and reproductive capability of the weed. In addition, it is recognized as one of the worst weeds due to its rapid proliferation rate, ecological adaptability and detrimental effects on environment, human health and economic development. It poses serious socio-economic and environmental problems includes destruction of biodiversity, hindrance to water transport and recreation, oxygen depletion and reduction of water quality, breeding ground for pests, vectors and their effect on human health, hampering agriculture and fisheries, affect hydropower and water supply systems and increased evapo-transpiration. Therefore deferent management strategies such as physical, chemical and biological methods had been used to control the weed. Accordingly manual removal was used in South Africa; Zimbabwe Lake Mutirikwi; Ethiopia Wonji-Shewa Sugar Factory and Owen fall hydropower in Jinja at Lake Victoria. Chemical control was practiced in Zimbabwe Lake Chivero using 2-4-D; South-west Nigeria Ere fishing channel by glyphosate; South Africa larger dams and river systems by using glyphosate; Zimbabwe acetic acid and glyphosate control the weed at experimental site. Biological control was practiced in Zimbabwe Lake Chivero through combination of weevil and fungi; Kenya Lake Victoria and China by two types of weevils (Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhornia) and Ethiopia Neochetina bruchi and fungi at Rift Valley and in green house at experimental level respectively.

Keywords

Admas A, Sahle S, Belete E, Agidie A, Alebachew M. 2017. Controlling Water Hyacinth in Lake Tana Using Biological Method at Green House and Pond Level. Eur Exp Biol. 7: 29.

Agidie A, Sahle S, Admas A, Alebachew M. 2018. Controlling Water Hyacinth, Eichhorni acrassipes (Mart.) Solms Using Some Selected Eco-Friendly Chemicals. J Aquacul Res Deve. 9: 1-3.

Allen L, Sinclair T, Bennett J. 1997. Evapotranspiration of vegetation of Florida: perpetuated misconceptions versus mechanistic processes. Proceeding of Soils and Crop Science Society of Florida, Florida, 56: 1-10.

Barrett S. 1980. Sexual reproduction in Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). II. Seed production in natural populations. J Appl Ecol. 17: 113-124.

Biswas S, Choudhury J, Nishat A, Rahman M. 2007. Do invasive plants threaten the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh?. Forest Ecol Manag. 245: 1-9.

Brundu G, Azzella M, Blasi C, Camarda I, Iberite M, Celesti-Grapow L. 2013. The silent invasion of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Italy. Plant Biosys. 147: 1120-1127.

Center T, Steward K, Bruner M. 1982. Control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) with Neochetina eichhorniae (Caleoptera: Curculionidae) and a growth retardant. Weed Sci. 30: 453-457.

Charudattan R. 1986. Integrated control of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) with a pathogen, insects, and herbicides. Weed Sci. 34: 26-30.

Charudattan R. 1996. Pathogens for biological control of water hyacinth. In: Charudattan, R., R. Labrada, and T.D. Center (Eds.), Strategies for water hyacinth control. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp. 189-199.

Chen Y, Chiang H, Wu L, Wang Y. 1989. Residues of glyphosate in an aquatic environment after control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). J Weed Sci Technol. 34: 117-122.

Chikwenhere G. 2001. Current strategies for the management of water hyacinth on the Manyame River system in Zimbabwe. In Biological and integrated control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Proceedings of the Second Global Working Group Meeting for the Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth. pp 105-108.

Chikwenhere G, Keswani C, Liddel C. 1999. Control of water hyacinth and its environmental and economic impacts at Gache Gache in the eastern reaches of Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. In: Hill M.P, Julien M.H, Center T.D. (Eds.) Biological and Integrated control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of the Global Working Group for the Biological and Integrated Control of water hyacinth, Harare, Zimbabwe, 16-19 November 1998. Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. pp 30-38.

Cho M, Tifuh J. 2012. Quantification of the impacts of water hyacinth on riparian communities in Cameroon and assessment of an appropriate method of control: the case of the Wouri River Basin. Confference proceedings.

Choo T, Lee C, Low K, Hishamuddin O. 2006. Accumulation of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions using water lilies (Nymphaea spontanea). Chemosphere. 62: 961-967.

Coetzee J, Hill M, Julien M, Center T, Cordo H. 2009. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub.(Pontederiaceae). Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 183-210.

DeLoach C, Cordo H. 1976. Ecological studies of Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae on water hyacinth in Argentina. J Aqua Plant Manag. 14: 53-59.

Ding J, Wang R, Fu W, Zhang G. 2001. Water Hyacinth in China: Its Distribution, Problems and Control Status. In: Julien M.H, Hill M.P, Center T.D, Ding J.Q. (Eds.), Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes. ACIAR Proceedings 102. Canberra, Australian, p 29-32.

Downing‐Kunz M, Stacey M. 2012. Observations of mean and turbulent flow structure in a free‐floating macrophyte root canopy. Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments. 2: 67-79.

EEA (European Environment Agency). 2013. The impacts of invasive alien species in Europe. EEA Technical report No 16/2012, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). 2008. Data sheets on quarantine pests. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. EPPO bulletin, 38, 55-59.

EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). 2009. National regulatory control systems Eichhornia crassipes. Bulletin EPPO Bulletin 39: 460-464.

Fessehaie R. 2005. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): A Review of its weed status in Ethiopia. Arem (Ethiopia). 6: 105-111.

Firehun Y. 2017. Management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using bioagents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia." PhD diss., Wageningen University.

Firehun Y, Tafesse A, Gebeyehu T, Tessema T. 2007. Distribution, impact and management of water hyacinth at Wonji-Shoa sugar factory. Ethiopian J Weed Manag. 1: 41-52.

Firehun Y, Struik P, Lantinga E, Tessema T. 2014. Water hyacinth in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia: Its distribution, socio-economic importance and management. Management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using bioagents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Int J Current Agric Res. 3: 67-75.

Gettys L. 2014. Water Hyacinth: Florida's Worst Floating Weed. IFAS Extensio, SSAGR-380, University of Florida.

Gichuki J, Omondi R, Boera P, Okorut T, Matano A, Jembe T, Ofulla A. 2012. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation. Scientific World Journal. 106429.

GISD (Global Invasive Species Database). 2006. Eichhorrnia Crassipes (aquatic plant). International Union for Conservation of Nature/ Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Gopal B. 1987. Water Hyacinth Elsevier. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 471.

Haider S. 1989. Recent work in Bangladesh on the Utilization of Water hyacinth. Commonwealth Science Council, Dhaka University, Dhaka, pp: 32.

Harley K, Julien M, Wright A. 1996. Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen. pp 639-644.

Hill M, Coetzee J. 2017. The biological control of aquatic weeds in South Africa: Current status and future challenges. Bothalia-African Biodiversity & Conservation. 47: 1-12.

Hill M, Coetzee J. 2008. Integrated control of water hyacinth in Africa. EPPO bulletin. 38: 452-457.

Hill M, Coetzee J, Julien M, Center T. 2011. Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. In: Water Hyacinth, Simberlof D, Rejmanek M.  (Eds.). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA., pp 689-692.

Howard G, Matindi S. 2003. Alien Invasive Species in Africa’s Wetlands. Some threats and solutions. IUCN Eastern African Regional Program, Nairobi, Kenya. International Development Research Centre (n.d.). People, Land and Water. Retrieved June 19th, 2012.

Julien M. 2000. Biological control of water hyacinth with arthropods: a review to 2000. In Aciar Proceedings (pp. 8-20). ACIAR.

Julien M, Griffiths M, Stanley J. 2001. Biological control of water hyacinth. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Labradar R. 1995. Status of Water Hyacinth in Developing Countries: In Charudattan R, Labrada R, Center T.D, Kelly-Begazo C. Strategies for Water Hyacinth Control. Report of a Panel of Experts Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida USA. pp 3-11.

Mailu A. 2001. Preliminary assessment of the Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of water hyacinth in the lake Victoria basin and the status of control. In: Biological and Integrated control of water hyacinth, Erchhorniacrassipes. Julien M.H, Hill M.P, Centre T.D, Jianqung D. (Eds), ACIAR proceedings 102: 130-139.

Mara M. 1976. Estimated costs of mechanical control of water hyacinths. J Environ Econ Manag. 2: 273-294.

May M, Grosso C, Collins J. 2003. Practical Guide book to the control of Invasive Aquatic and Wetland plants of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Region. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, California.

Mehdizadeh M. 2014. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of an Asymmetrical Triazine Herbicide from Soil. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences. 3 (11): 1201-1205.

Mehdizadeh M. 2016. Effect of Pesticide Residues on Agricultural Food Production; A Case Study: Sensitivity of Oilseed Rape to Triasulfuron Herbicide Soil Residue. MOJ Food Processing & Technology. 2(6): 00053. DOI: 10.15406/mojfpt.2016.02.00054

Mehdizadeh M, Gholami Abadan F. 2018. Negative Effects of Residual Herbicides on Sensitive Crops: Impact of Rimsulfuron Herbicide Soil Residue on Sugar beet. Journal of Research in Weed Science. 1(1): 1-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.26655/jrweedsci.2018.6.1

Mehdizadeh M. 2019. Sensitivity of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to soil residues of imazethapyr herbicide. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences. 3(1): 46-49. https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2019.1.10

Mehdizadeh M. Izadi-Darbandi E, Naseri Pour Yazdi M.T, Rastgoo M, Malaekeh-Nikouei B,  Nassirli H. 2019. Impacts of different organic amendments on soil degradation and phytotoxicity of metribuzin. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40093-019-0280-8

Midgley J, Hill M, Villet M. 2006. The effect of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) SolmsLaubach (Pontederiaceae) on benthic biodiversity in two impoundments on the New Year's River, South Africa. Afr J Aqu Sci.31: 25-30.

Mironga J, Mathooko J, Onywere. 2012. The effect of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) infestation on phytoplankton productivity in Lake Naivasha and the status of control. J Environ Sci Engin. 5: 1252-1260.

Mujere N. 2016. Water Hyacinth: Characteristics, Problems, Control Options, and Beneficial Uses Impact of Water Pollution on Human Health and Environmental Sustainability (pp. 343-361): IGI Global.

Mujingni C. 2012. Quantification of the impacts of Water Hyacinth on riparian communities in Cameroon and assessment of an appropriate method of control: The case of the River Wouri Basin: The Case of the Wouri River Basin. Msc disseratation. World Maritime University, Malmö, Sweden.

MWBP/RSCP. 2006. Invasive Alien Species in the Lower Mekong Basin: Current State of Play. Mekong Wetland Biodiversity Programme and Regional Species Conservation Programme, The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Asia, SriLanka, 22 pp.

Navarro L, Phiri G. 2000. Water hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East: A survey of problems and solutions. (Eds.). International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. 140p.

Ndimele P, Kumolo-Johnson C, Anetekhai M. 2011. The invasive aquatic macrophyte, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solm-Laubach: Pontederiacea): Problems and Prospects. Res J Environ Sci. 6: 509-520.

Parsons W, Cuthbertson E. 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia. (2nd edition). Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, pp. 139-144: CSIRO Publishing.

Rakotoarisoa T. 2017. Use of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) in Poor and Remote Regions: A Case Study from Lake Alaotra, Madagascar (Doctoral dissertation, Universität Hildesheim).

Tegene S, Ayele N. 2014. Prevalence and Intensity of Water Hyacinth Infestation in the Water Bodies of Rift Valley, Ethiopia.

Senayit R, Agajie T, Taye T, Adefires W, Getu, E. 2004. Invasive Alien Plant Control and Prevention in Ethiopia. Pilot Surveys and Control Baseline Conditions. Report submitted to EARO, Ethiopia and CABI under the PDF B phase of the UNEP GEF Project-Removing Barriers to Invasive Plant Management in Africa. EARO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Toft J, Simenstad C, Cordell J, Grimaldo L. 2003. The effects of introduced water hyacinth on habitat structure, invertebrate assemblages, and fish diets. Estuaries. 26: 746-758.

Uka U, Chukwuka K, Daddy F. 2007. Water hyacinth infestation and management in Nigeria inland waters: a review. Plant Sci. 2: 480-488.

UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2011. Division of Early Warning, & Assessment. Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment. UNEP/Earthprint.

Van Wyk E, van Wilgen B. 2002. The cost of water hyacinth control in South Africa: A Case study of three options. Afr J Aqua Sci. 27: 141-149.

Villamagna A, Murphy B. 2010. Ecological and socio‐economic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): a review. Fresh Water Biol. 55: 282-298.

Waithaka E. 2013. Impacts of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the fishing communities of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. J Biodiv Endanger Spec. 1:108.

Wise R, van-Wilgen B, Hill M, Schulthess F, Tweddle D, Chabi-Olay A, Zimmermann H. 2007. The economic impact and appropriate management of selected invasive alien species on the African continent. Global Invasive species Programme. CSIR Report No. CSIR/NRE/RBSD/ER/2007/0044/C.

Wittenberg R, Cock M. (2001). Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. (Eds.). Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International.