Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

Abstract

Weeds could replace the cultivated fodders in case of fodder shortage. But most of farmers are not aware about the potential of traditional weeds in croplands. Thus, an experiment was conducted to estimate the nutritional quality of some forage weeds with respect to their phonological development. Quantitative and qualitative parameters were recorded and analyzed statistically by analysis of variance technique and means of treatments were compared by least significant difference test. Qualitative traits of selected weeds were determined through the methods developed by The Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The results showed that the quantitative traits of weeds differ from each other. It was found that the moisture decreased from vegetative (86.13-90.92%) to post reproductive stage (86.77-73.56%) and crude protein decreased from vegetative (16.95-23.40%) to post reproductive stage (11.52-15.09%) in all weeds. Similarly ash contents decreased from vegetative (13.72-23.40%) to post reproductive stage (9.26-13.11%) in all weeds. The crude fats were nearly similar in all stages (1.75-2.00%). Dry matter and crude fiber increased (9.08-13.87 to 13.23-26.44% and 9.86-21.95 to 21.58-31.63%, respectively) from vegetative to post reproductive stage. Overall results declared that the biomass produced by weeds was a luxurious source for livestock production during the vegetative stage of growth as the nutritional quality decreased from vegetative to post reproductive stages. Further research is needed to explore the forage quality of all common weeds present in croplands.

Keywords

Achakzai A.K.K, Achakzai P,  Masood A, Kayani S.A, Tareen R.B. 2009. Response of plant parts and age on the distribution of secondary metabolites of plants found in Quetta. Pak. J. Bot. 41: 2129-2135.

Afzal M, Ahmad A, Ahmad A.H. 2012. Effect of nitrogen on growth and yield of sorghum forage (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (cv.) under three cotting system. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova. 4: 58-64.

AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington. D.C, USA. pp. 69–88.

Attis I, Konuskan O, Duru M, Gozubenli H, Yilmaz S. 2012. Effect of harvesting time on yield, composition and forage quality of some forage cultivars. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 14: 879-886.

Belsky A.J, Gelbard J.L. 2000. Livestock grazing and weed invasions in the arid west. A sci. report published by Oregon Natural Desert Association, Portland, Oregon. pp. 20-21.

Douglas B.J, Thomas A.G, Morrison I.N, Maw M.G. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 70. Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65: 669-690.

Ganskopp D, Bohnert D.  2001. Nutritional dynamics of 7 Northern great basin grasses. J. Range Mange. 54: 640-647.

INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique). 2007. Available at https:// www2. dijon.inra.fr/hyppa/hyppaa/ lthap_ah.htm (Assessed on 06-02-17).

Khan R, Khan M.A, Sultan S, Marwat K.B, Khan I, Hassan G, Shah H.U. 2013. Nutritional quality of sixteen terrestrial weeds for the formulation of cost-effective animal feed. J. Anim. Plant. Sci. 23: 75-79.

Khan M, Hussain F, Musharaf S., Haider A.S. 2014. Effect of phenological stages on nutritional assessment of ten plant species in Tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati, District Karak, Pakistan. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 27: 953-961.

Malik M.S. 2009. Biology and ecology of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). A dissertation Presented to the Graduate school of Clemson University. All dissertations. Paper 386. Available online http://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_ dissertations.

Mehdizadeh M, Alebrahim M. 2015. Effect of some adjuvants application on enhancing sulfosulfuron herbicide performance on Phalaris minor- Poaceae. Azarian Journal of Agriculture. 2(1): 7-11.

Menalled F, Mangold J, Davis E. 2008. Cheatgrass: identification, biology and integrated management. Montana State University Extension, Bozeman. pp. 1-4.

Naeem M, Chohan M.S.M, Khan A.H, Salah-ud-din S. 2003. Study of green fodder yield potential and its components of different pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) varities under irrigated conditions of Faisalabad. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2: 74-76.

 Pallabi K, Tag H, Das A.K. 2013. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of four unexplored wild food plants from Arunachal Himalayas for the formulation of cost effective fish feeds. Int. J. Fish. Aquaculture 5: 92-97.

Sarwar M, Shahzad M.A, Nisa M, Bhatti S.A, Tauqir N.A. 2012. Enhancing buffalo productivity through usage of low quality feed stuffs. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 22: 128-132.

Sharma M.P, Born W.H.V. 1978. The biology of Canadian weeds.27. Avena fatua L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 58: 141-157.

Steel R.G.D, Torrie J.H, Dicky D.A. 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics. A biometrical approach. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill Book International Co. Singapore. pp. 204-227.

UCIPM. (Integrated pest management, University of California). 2016. Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor). Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, California. Available at http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/littleseed_ canarygrass.html# (Assessed on 07-01-17).

Victorian resource online (VRO). 2015. Coast barbgrass. Department of economic development, jobs, transport & resources. State Government, Victoria. Available at http://vro.agriculture.vic.gov.au/DPI/Vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/water_sss_coast_barb_grass (Assessed on 10-12-16).