Document Type: Original Article


Department of Botany, Jai Prakash University, Chapra – 841301, Bihar, India


The present study was conducted to evaluate the relative phytotoxic effects of different concentrations (15, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of aqueous extract from stem and root of Parthenium hysterophorus on the rate of seed germination, length of root and shoot, and Seed Vigour Index (SVI) of Cicer aeritinum. In laboratory condition the experiment was set up in petri dishes, each petri dish contained ten seeds. Each treatment had ten replicates. A control condition was maintained using distilled water in place of stem or root aqueous extracts of Parthenium. The rate of seed germination in Cicer aeritinum in stem and root aqueous extracts of different concentrations decreased from 5% to 79%, and 0.0% to 22%, respectively. The inhibition value in root length in stem extracts varied from 11.14% to 85.96% and in root extract was from 13.14% to 64.25%. The inhibition in shoot length in stems and roots extracts varied from 14.67% to 50.19% and 73.68% to 85.86%, respectively. The Seed Vigour Index (SVI) value decreased from 16.38% to 94.99% in stem extract and 32.11% to 77.37% in root extract. The stem extract of Parthenium was more phytotoxic than the root extract in Cicer aeritinum. When the data collected were analysed using Tukey HSD and Post HOC Tests the phytotoxic impacts of plant parts (stem and root); treatments (15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations); and interactions between plant parts and treatments were highly significantly different at p < 0.000. Thus the present study indicated that the aqueous extracts of stem of Parthenium were recorded more phytotoxic than root extract on germination and growth of Cicer aeritinum.


Akter A, Zuberi M.I. 2009. Invasive alien species in Northern Bangladesh:  Identification, Inventory and Impacts.  Int J Biodiv Conser. 1: 129-134.

Biswas O. 2010. Allelopathic effects of plant debris of Parthenium weed on seed germination, growth and development of field crops. M.S. Thesis, Department of Agronomy, BAU, Mymensingh.

Devi Y.N, Dutta B.K, Sagolshemcha R. Singh, N.I. 2014. Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on growth and productivity of Zea mays L. and its phytochemical screening. Int J Curr Microbiol Appli Sci. 3: 837-846.

Gunaseelan N.V. 1998. Impact of anaerobic digestion on inhibition potential of Parthenium solids. Bioma Bioene. 14: 179-184.

Kanchan S.D. Jayachandra. 1980. Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Identification of inhibitors. Plant Soil. 55: 67-75.

Khosla S.N, Sobti S.N. 1981. Parthenin – a promising root inhibitor from Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Pesticides. 15: 8-11.

Kumar S. 2015. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet and Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of barley. Int J Phar Biol Sci. 6: 1117-1120.

Oudhia P, Tripathi R.S. 1998. Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L., on kodo, mustard and problematic weeds. 136-9. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Parthenium Management, University of Agricultural Sciences,Dharwad, India, 6-8,October, 1997.

Pimentel D, Zuniga R. Morrison D. 2005. Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecol. Eco. 52: 273-288.

Pysek P.  Richardson D.M. 2010. Invasive species, environmental change, management and health. Annul Rev Env Resou. 35: 25-55.

Rai P.K. 2015. What makes the plant invasion possible? Paradigm of invasion mechanisms, theories and attributes. Environ Skepti Criti. 4: 36-66.

Sarika N, Rao, P.B. 2010. Allelopathic effects of weed species extracts on some physiological parameters of wheat varieties. Ind J Plant Physiol. 15: 310-318.

Sax D.F, Stachowicz J.J, Brown J.H, Bruno J.F, Dawson M.N, Gaines S.D, Grasberg R.K, Hastings  A, Holt R.D, Mayfield M.M, O’Connor M.I, Rice W.R. 2007. Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions. Trend Eco Evol. 22: 465-471.

Shikha R. 2018. Ecological study on Parthenium hysterophorus L.: A Noxious Weed. Ph. D Thesis, Department of Botany J.P. University, Chapra, 435pp.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2016a. Allelopathic effect of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and growth of Cicer aeritinum L. Int J Sci Res. 5: 652-655.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2016b. Evaluation of effect of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination, seedling growth and fresh weight of Phaseolus mungo. Am J Res Comm. 4: 86-103.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2016c. Allelopathic activity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. leaf extract on Pisum sativum. Int J Rec Sci Res. 7: 9461-9466.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2016d. Leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. affects the growth of Cajanus cajan (L.)Millsp. J Res Agricul Ani Sci. 4: 01-07.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2017a. Allelopathic influence of aqueous stem extract of Parthenium on growth of maize. Ind J W Sci. 49: 1-2.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2017b. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous stem extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and seedling growth on Pisum sativum. Poll Res. 36: 153-159.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2018a. Evaluation of phytotoxicity levels of Parthenium hysterophorus on Cajanus cajan. Asia J Sci Tech. 9: 8473-8477.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2018b. Evaluation of phytotoxicity levels of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of Brassica nigra. Int J Basic App Res. 8: 399-406.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2018c. Evaluation of phytotoxicity levels of Parthenium hysterophorus on Triticum aestivum. Int J Crea Res Thoug. 1404-1408.

Shikha R, Jha A.K. 2018d. Phytotoxic impact of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on Macrotyloma uniflorum a pulse crop in a dry tropical environment, Bihar, India. J App Nat Sci. 10: 1141-1148.

Singh S.P, Batish D.R, Pandher J.K, Kohli R.K. 2005. Phytotoxic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus residues on three Brassica species. Weed Biol Manage. 5: 105-109.