Document Type: Original Article


1 National Institute of Field Crops, BP 120, 870 Boussalem, Jendouba, Tunisia

2 Department of Plant Protection, National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia, 43 Avenue, Charles Nicolle, 1082 Tunis, University of Carthage, Tunisia


Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) is a most prevalent weed in Bizerte region and caused losses in yield. Farmers used herbicides to control ryegrass in cereal crops. Thirteen herbicides (ALS inhibitors, ACCase inhibitors and PSII inhibitors) were used in the field experiment to evaluate their efficacy and their effect on yields of wheat and of ryegrass. The trial was installed in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in Bizerte. Seeds of ryegrass collected from Bizerte during surveys were the subject of the resistance detection to the ALS inhibitor herbicides [AmilcarWG® (mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron)] and to the ACCase inhibitor herbicides [Topik® (clodinafop-propagyl)] by a pot experiment method. The results of the field experiment showed that only Tolurex® [Chlortoluron (PSII inhibitor)] has the best efficacy (83.6%), but all other herbicides (ALS and ACCase inhibitors) have insufficient efficacy on ryegrass. Then, over 60% of ryegrass populations were escaped to treatments ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides that are not statistically different. The low efficacy of herbicides (ALS and ACCase inhibitors) was not explained by a high density of ryegrass, but by the presence of herbicide resistance in ryegrass populations in Bizerte. These results were confirmed by the pot experiment method. The count of the surviving plants of ryegrass (30 DAT) in pot experiment method revealed that 70% of ryegrass populations are resistant to both herbicides inhibitors (ACCase and ALS). Similarly, the percentage of reduction in fresh weight of ryegrass, compared to untreated control, showed over 80% of the ryegrass populations was resistant to ACCase inhibitor herbicides and to ALS inhibitor herbicides.


Beldi S. 2005. Evaluation de l’efficacité de la lutte chimique contre le ray-grass rigide (Lolium rigidum) dans la culture de blé et du risque de développement de la résistance herbicide. Projet de fin d’études, INAT, Tunisie.

Brunet M.W.M, Hart Q, Holtum J.A.M, Powles S.B. 1994. Resistance to nine herbicide classes in a population of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Weed Science. 42: 369-377.

Buhler D.D. 2002. Challenges and opportunities for integrated weed management. Weed Science. 50: 273-280.

Gasquez J. 2000. Extension des graminées foliaires en France. In: 11ème colloque international sur la biologie des mauvaises herbes. Dijon, France, pp. 485-491.

Gasquez J. 2005. La résistance aux herbicides chez les plantes. In: Enjeux phytosanitaire pour l’agriculture et l’environnement. Regnault-Roger C. Ed. Editions Lavoisier Tech & Doc, Paris, pp. 189-206.

Gill G.S, Holmes J.E. 1997. Efficacy of cultural control methods for combating herbicide resistant Lolium rigidum. Pesticide Science. 51: 352–358.

Heap I, Knight R. 1986. The occurrence of herbicide cross-resistance in a population of annual rayegrass, Lolium rigidum, resistant to diclofop-methyl.  Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 37: 149-156.

Heap I. 2009. The international survey of herbicide resistant weeds. March 23, 2009).

Heap I. 2018. The international survey of herbicide resistant weeds. (Accessed 26 April 2018).

Hole S.J.W, Powles S.B. 1997. Reduced efficacy and enhanced degradation of carbetamide after repeated application in Australia. Weed Research. 37: 165-170.

Jensen P.K. 1985. Review of yield responses to weed control in one thousand spring barley experiments. p. 687-692. In: Proceedings of the British Crop Protection Conference Weeds. 18-21 November, 1985, Brighton Metropole, England.

Khammassi M, Thouraya S, Chaabane H, Belbahri N, Bousselmi A, Belhaj S.H. 2013. Evaluation de l’efficacité des antigiraminées sur des populations de ray-grass au nord de la Tunisie. In: 22ème Conférence du COLUMA. Journées internationales sur la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes-Dijon (France), pp 749-758.

Khammassi M, Chaabane H, Bousselmi A, Belbahri N, Souissi T. 2016.  Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) Abundance in Tunisian Northern Cereal Fields and its Susceptibility to Selected Inhibitors of Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase (ACCase) and Acetolactate Synthase (ALS). Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 11: 105-115.

Liebman M, Davis A.S. 2000. Integration of soil, crop and weed management in low-external-input farming systems. Weed Research. 40: 27-47.

Llewellyn R.S, Powles S.B. 2001. High levels of herbicide resistance in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in the wheat belt of Western Australia. Weed Technology. 15: 242-248.

Lumb J.M, McPherson J.B. 1964. Chemical control of Wimmera ryegrass in wheat. Journal of Agriculture of Victoria. 62: 239-243.

Menchari Y, Ben Haj S.H, Ghorbel A, 2009. Résistance du phalaris et du ray grass a des antigraminées foliaires en Tunisie. In: XIIIème colloque international sur la biologie des mauvaises herbes. Dijon (France), pp. 393-396.

Moss S.R. 1999. Detecting herbicide resistance: guidelines for conducting diagnostic tests and interpreting results. Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (HRAC). (Accessed 26 April 2018)

Neve P, Powles S.B. 2005.  High survival frequencies at low herbicide use rates in populations of Lolium rigidum result in rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. Heredity. 95: 485-492.

O'Donovan J.T, Remy E.A.D.S, O'Sullivan P.A.O, Dew D.A, Sharma A.K. 1985. Influence of the relative time of emergence of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) on yield loss of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Science. 33: 498-503.

Owen M.J, Walsh M.J, Llewellyn R.S, Powles S.B .2007. Widespread occurrence of multiple herbicide resistance in Western Australian annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) populations. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 58: 711-718.

Owen MJ, Martinez N.J, Powles S.B .2014. Multiple herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) now dominates across the Western Australian grain belt. Weed Research. 54: 314–324.

Powles S.B, Lorraine-Colwill D.F, Dellow J.J, Perston C. 1998. Evolved resistance to glyphosate in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in Australia. Weed Science. 45: 604-607.

Powles S.B, Matthews J.M. 1992. Multiple herbicide resistance in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum), the driving force for the adoption of integrated weed management. In: Achievements and Developments in Combating Pest Resistance. Denholm I, Devonshire A, Holloman D. Eds.  Elsevier, London, pp 75-87.

Preston C, Wakelin A.M, Dolman F.C, Botamam Y, Boutsalis P. 2009. A decade of glyphosate-resistant Lolium around the world: mechanisms, genes, fitness and agronomic management. Weed Science. 57: 435-41.

Radford B.J, Wilson B.J, Carthedge O, Watkins F.B. 1980. Effect of wheat seeding rate on wild oat competition. Australian journal of experimental agriculture and animal husbandry. 20: 77-81.

Reeves T.G, Smith I.S. 1975. Pasture management and cultural methods for the control of annual ryegrass in wheat. Australian journal of experimental agriculture and animal husbandry. 15: 527-530.

Reeves T.G, Tuohey C.L. 1972. The selective chemical control of Wimmera ryegrass in wheat with di-allate and tri-allate. Australian journal of experimental agriculture and animal husbandry. 12: 55-59.

SAS®. 1985: Statistical Analysis System Institute. Language guide for personal computers, version 6. Edition SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.

Scursoni J.A, Palmano M, De Notta A, Delfino D. 2012. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) density and N fertilization on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield in Argentina. Crop Protection. 32: 36-40.

Souissi T, Labidi S, Ben Haj S.H. 2004. Mise en évidence et origine de la résistance herbicide du ray-grass (Lolium rigidum) dans les cultures de blé. Revue de l’INAT. 18: 149-161.

Widderick M, Sindel B, Walker S. 2002. Emergence of Sonchus oleraceus is favoured under zero tillage farming systems. In 13th Australian Weeds Conference Papers and Proceedings, Perth, Western Australia, pp 91-92.

Wilson B.J. 1981. The influence of reduced cultivations and direct drilling on the long-term decline of a population of Avena fatua L. in spring barley. Weed Research. 21: 23-28.

Zadoks J.C, Chang T.T, Konzak C.F. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research. 14: 415-421.