Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Agronomy, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, India

2 Department of Agricultural Statistics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, India

Abstract

In the fieldof weed science,data transformation techniques are of frequent use while evaluating investigating weed count data. Even after having its criticism, data transformation still remains as a very popular technique because the reasons for its use are quite greater than its non-use. Depending on the functional relationship existing between mean and variance of the weed count data, suitable transformations like logarithmic, square root and angular, should be used.

Keywords

Abrahams S.C, Keve E.T. 1971. Normal probability plot analysis of error in measured and derived quantities and standard deviations. Acta Crystallogr. A. 27: 157-165.

Ahmad W.M.A.W, Naing N.N, Rosli N. 2006. An approached of Box-Cox data transformation to biostatistics experiment. Statistika. 6: 1-6.

Ahrens W.H, Cox D.J, Girish B. 1990. Use of the Arcsine and Square Root Transformations for Subjectively Determined Percentage Data. Weed Sci. 38: 452-458.

Atkinson A.C. 1985. Plots, Transformations and Regression: An Introduction to Graphical Methods of Diagnostic Regression Analysis, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Anderson V.L, McLean R.A. 1974. Design of Experiments: A realistic approach. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

Andrews D.F. 1971. A note on the selection of data transformations. Biometrika. 58: 249-254.

Bartlett M.S. 1936. The square root transformation in analysis of variance. J. R. Stat. Soc. 3: 68-78.

Bartlett M.S. 1947. The use of transformations. Biometrics. 3: 39-52.

Bartlett M.S, Kendall D.G. 1946. The Statistical Analysis of Variance-Heterogeneity and the Logarithmic Transformation. J. R. Stat. Soc. 7(Suppl.): 128.

Box G.E.P, Cox D.R. 1964. An analysis of transformations. J. R. Stat. Soc. 26: 211-252.

Carroll R.J, Ruppert D. 1988. Transformation and Weighting in Regression, Chapman and Hall, London.

Chou Y.M, Polansky A.M, Mason R.L. 2018. Transforming Non-Normal Data to Normality in Statistical Process Control. J. Qual. Technol.30: 133-141.

Couto M.R.M, Lúcio A.D, Lopes S.J, Carpes R.H. 2009. Transformações de dados em experimentos com abobrinha italiana em ambiente protegido. Ciência Rural. 39:  1701-1707.

D’Agostino R.B, Stephens M.A. 1986. Goodness-of-fit Techniques, Marcel Dekkar Inc., New York.

Dean A, Voss D. 1999. Design and Analysis of Experiments, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., New York.

Dolby J.L.1963. A quick method for choosing a transformation. Technometrics. 5: 317-326.

Draper N.R, Hunter W.G. 1969. Transformations: Some examples revisited. Technometrics.11: 23-40.

Graybill F.A. 1976. The Theory and Applications of the Linear Model, Duxbury Press, London.

Gupta S.C, Kapoor V.K. 2014. Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi.

Hoyle M.H. 1973. Transformations: An introduction and a bibliography. Int. Stat. Rev. 41: 203-223.

Jaeger T.F. 2008. Categorical data analysis: Away from ANOVAs (transformation or not) and towards logit mixed models. J. Mem. Lang. 59: 434-446.

Judice M.G, Muniz J.A, Carvalheiro R. 1999. Avaliação do coeficiente de variação na experimentação com suínos. Ciênc. agrotec. 23: 170-173.

Keene O.N. 1995. The log transformation is special. Stat. Med.14: 811-819.

Lix L.M, Keselman J.C, Keselman H.J. 1996. Consequences of assumption violations revisited: A quantitative review of alternatives to the one-way analysis of variance F test. Rev. Educ. Res. 66: 579-619.

Montgomery D.C. 2013. Design and Analysis of Experiments, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, USA.

Montgomery D.C, Peck E.A, Vining G.G. 2017. Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.

O’Hara R.B, Kotze D.J. 2010. Do not log‐transform count data. Methods Ecol. Evol.1: 118- 122.

Oliveira R.L, Muniz J.A, Andrade M.J.B, Reis R.L. 2009. Precisão experimental em ensaios com a cultura do feijão. Ciênc. agrotec.33: 113-119.

Onofri A, Carbonell E.A, Piepho H.P, Mortimer A.M, Cousens R.D. 2010. Current statistical issues in Weed Research. Weed Res. 50: 5-24.

Pereira V.J, Santana D.G. 2013. Coefficient of variation of normal seedlings obtained from the validation of methods for the seed germination testing of 20 species belonging to the family Fabaceae. J. Seed Sci. 35: 161-170.

Piepho H.P. 2003. The folded exponential transformation for proportions. Stat. 52: 575-589.

Quinn G.P, Keough M. 2002. Experimental design and data analysis for biologists, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rangaswamy R. 2018. A Textbook of Agricultural Statistics, New Age International(P) Limited Publishers, New Delhi.

Ribeiro-Oliveira J.P, Ranal M.A. 2016. Sample size in studies on the germination process.  Botany. 94: 103-115.

Ribeiro-Oliveira J.P, de Santana D.G, Pereira V.J, dos Santos C.M. 2018. Data transformation: an underestimated tool by inappropriate use. Acta Sci. Agron. 40.

Ribeiro-Oliveira J.P, Ranal M.A, Santana D.G. 2013. A amplitude amostral interfere nas medidas de germinação de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth. Ciênc. Florest. 23: 623-634.

Royston P. 1992. Approximating the Shapiro-Wilk W-Test for non-normality. Stat. Comput. 2: 117 -119.

Sakia R.M. 1992. The Box-Cox Transformation Technique: A Review. J. R Stat. Soc. 41: 169-178.

Shapiro S.S, Wilk M.B. 1965. An analysis of variances test for normality (Complete Samples). Biometrika.52: 591-611.

Souza R.A, Hungria M, Franchini J, Chueire L.M.O, Barcellos F.G, Campo RJ. 2008. Avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa da microbiota do solo e da fixação biológica donitrogênio pela soja. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras. 43: 71-82.

Streibig J.C. 1988. Herbicide bioassay. Weed Res. 28: 479-484.

Thoeni H. 1969. A table for estimating the mean of a lognormal distribution. J. Am. Stat. Assoc.              64: 632-636.

Warton D.I, Hui F.K.C. 2011. The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology. Ecol. 92: 3-10.

Wilk M.B, Gnanadesikan R. 1968. Probability plotting methods for the analysis for the analysis of data. Biometrika.55: 1-17.

Zar J.H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis, Pearson Education India, India.

Zar J.H. 2014. Biostatistical Analysis, Pearson India Education Services Pvt. Ltd, India.