Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Kufa University, Iraq.

2 Department of Agricultural Production, E.T.S.I.A.A.B., Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain.


A pot experiment was conducted under field conditions in Al-Qizuina district-province of Najaf during the 2017 growing season in order to pre-planting control of field dodder )Cuscuta campestris( by breaking its seed dormancy and reducing seed banks in the soil. The experiment tested 56 treatments (chemical, biological and physical) in a complete randomized design with four replicates. Results showed significant differences between treatments. Gibberelic acid at 800 ppm resulted in the highest germination rates of the dodder seeds (92%), while KNO3 had the highest speed of seed germination (7.6 days). Some other concentrations of Gibberellic acid, Salicylic acid, Ethrel and KNO3, and seed extracts of Maize, Barley and Alfalfa as well as the physical treatment of boiling water had significant effects on the dodder seeds in terms of germination rates which ranged from 19 to 51% and germination speed that ranged from 8.4 to 15.4 days compared to the control treatment which resulted in 0.75% and 20.82 days, respectively. The study confirmed that using high efficient treatments in breaking dormancy and increasing seed germination of dodder as pre-planting measurements can be practically applied in the integrate management of this pest. 


Adams R.P, TeBeest A.K. 2016. The effects of gibberellic acid (GA3), ethrel, seed soaking and pre-treatment storage temperatures on seed germination of Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris. Phytologia 98 (3).

Aliyas  I.M, Ahmed  M.A, Ali  M.Y. 2014. Germination response of dodder seeds with some agricultural crops seeds in laboratory conditions. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 4: 1-3.

Al-Jbouri  B.A, Hasawi G.S, Chalabi F.T. 1985. The weeds and control methods. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Baghdad. Pp 223.

Asano M, Suzuki S, Kawai M, Miwa T, and Shibai H. 1999. Characterization of novel cysteine proteinases from germinating cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). J Biochem. 126: 296-301.

Aydin I, Uzun F.2001.The effect of some applications on germination rate of gelemen clover seeds gathered from natural vegetation in samsun. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 4: 181-183.

Basra S.M.A, Farooq M, Wahid A, Khan M.B. 2006. Rice seed invigoration by hormonal and vitamin priming. Seed Sci Technol. 34: 753-758.

Benvenuti  S.  2003. Soil texture involvement in germination and emergence of buried weed seeds. Agron J. 95: 191-198.

Bewley J.D. 1997.  Seed germination and dormancy. Plant Cell. 9: 1055-1066.

Çetinbas M, Koyuncu F. 2006. Improving germination of Prunus aviumL. seeds by gibberellic acid, potassium nitrate and thiourea.  J  Hortic Sci. 33: 119-123.

Costea M, Tardif F.J.2004. Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae), the strength of weakness; a history of its name, uses and parasitism concept during ancient and medieval times. Sida. 21: 369-378.

Dawson J.H, Musselman L.J, Wolswinkel P, Dorr I.1994. Biology and control of Cuscuta spp., Weed Sci. 6: 265-317.

Finch-Savage W.E, Leubner-Metzger G.2006. Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytologist. 171: 501-523.

Gehan-Jayasuriya K.M.G, Baskin J.M, Geneve R.L, Baskin  C.C, Chien C.T. 2008. Physical Dormancy in Seeds of the Holoparasitic Angiosperm Cuscuta australis (Convolvulaceae, Cuscuteae): Dormancy-breaking Requirements, Anatomy of the Water Gap and Sensitivity Cycling. Annal Bot. 102: 39-48.

Golmohammadzadeh  S, Zaefarian F, Rezvani M.2015. Effects of some chemical factors, prechilling treatments and interactions on the seed dormancy breaking of two Papaver species. Weed Biol Manag. 15: 11-19.

Haidar  M.A, Gharib C,  Sleiman F.T. 2010. Survival of weed seeds subjected to sheep rumen digestion. Euro Weed Res Soci. 50: 467-471.

Hartmann H.T, Kester D.E, Davies F.T. 1997. Plant propagation, principles and practices. 6th edition. New Jersey, London: Prentice-Hall International. Pp 770.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J. 1997. World weeds: Natural histories and distribution. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Pp 1129.

Hutchinson J.M, Ashton F.M. 1980. Germination of field dodder (Cuscutacampestris). Weed Sci. 28: 330-333.

Khan M.I, Shah F. 2011. Effect of potassium nitrate and thiourea on seed germination of crops and weeds. African Crop Science Society. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved. Afr Crop Sci Conf Proceed. 10: 461-463.

Kieber J.J. 1997. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis. Ann rev plant physiol plant molecul biol. 48: 277-296.

Lyshede O.B. 1992.  Studies on mature seeds of Cuscutapedicellata and C. campestris by electron microscopy. Ann Bot. 69: 365-371.

Mamluk O.F, Weltzien H.C. 1978. Geographic distribution and host range of some Cuscuta campestris strain in the Near and Middle East. Biological Abstracts QRC. 66: 54599.

Matlob A.N.M, Muhammed A.S, Daabol K.S. 1989. Processed vegetable production. Part one. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Baghdad. Pp 930.

Menlebrouck K, Ameloot E, Assche J.A, Verheneyen K, Hermy M, Baskin C.C. 2008. Germination ecology of the holoparasite Cuscuta epithymum. Seed Sci Res. 18: 25-34.

Mishra J.S.2009. Biology and management of Cuscuta species. National Research Centre for Weed Science. Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur-482 004 (M. P.), Ind J  Weed Sci. 41: 1-11.

Morris C, Grossl P.R, Call C.A. 2009. Elemental allelopathy: processes, progress and pitfalls. Plant Ecol. 202: 1-11.

Mustapha A.B, Gworgwor N.A, Tame V.T.2015. Effect of wet heat treatment and gibberellic acid scarification on germination of dodder (Cuscuta campestrisYunck) Seed. Amer J Sci Technol. 2: 258-261.

Narwal S.S. 2010. Allelopathy in ecological sustainable organic agriculture. Allelopathy J. 25: 51-72.

Nicolás C,  Rodríguez D,  Poulsen F, Eriksen E.K, Nicolás G. 1997. The expression of an abscisic acid responsive glycine-rich protein coincides with the level of seed dormancy in Fagussylvatica. Plant Cell Physiol. 38: 1303-1310.

Sakhabutdinova A.R, Fatkhutdinova D.R,  Bezrukova  M.V,  Shakirova F.M. 2003. Salicylic acid prevents damaging action of stress factors on wheat plants. Bulg J Plant Physiol. 314-319.

Seyyedi M, Moghaddam P.R, Shahriari R, Azad M, Rezaei E.E. 2013. Allelopathic potential of sunflower and caster bean on germination properties of dodder (Cuscuta campestris). Afr J Agric Res. 8: 601-607.

Shen H, Xu S.J, Lan H, Wang Z.M, Ye W.H.2013. Growth but not photosynthesis response of a host plant to infection by a holoparasitic plant depends on nitrogen supply. Plos One. 8:(10)/e75555.

Sitkin R.S. 1976. Parasite-host interactions of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris). MSc Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Pp 64.

Smith J.D, Mescher M.C, De Moraes C.M. 2013. Implications of bioactive solute transfer from hosts to parasitic plants. Curr Opinion Plant Biol. 16: 464-472.

Spaulding D.D. 2013. Key to the dodder (Cuscuta, Convolvulaceae) of Alabama and Adjacent States. Phytoneuron. 74: 1-15.

Stojanovic D, Mijatovic K. 1973. Distribution, biology and control of Cuscutas pp. in Yugoslavia. Proc. European Weed Research Council, Malta. Pp 269–279.

Sun T,  Gubler F.2004. Molecular mechanism of gibberellin signaling in plants. Ann Rev Plant Biol. 55: 197-223.

Zhang X.K, Chen J, Chen L, Wang H.Z, Li J.N. 2008. Imbibition behavior and flooding tolerance of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L.) with different tests color. GENET RESOUR CROP EV. 55: 1175-1184.