Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Biologie Végétale, Université Cheikh Anta Diop; BP 5005 Fann-Dakar, Senegal.

2 CNRF, BP 2312, Dakar, Senegal.

3 CRA/ISRA, Saint Louis, Senegal.

4 ENSA/Université de Thiès. Senegal.


In the valley of the Senegal River, weeds represent one of the major constraints of irrigated rice cultivation. In that context, the development of efficient and adapted methods for better management of weeds is critical. This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of the combination of two formulations of herbicides (Eros Gold and Londax) and two sowing methods (direct sowing and transplanting) on rice weeds in a Split Plot design with three replicates. The weed flora was evaluated through phytosociological surveys with three observations: before heading, after heading and ripening stages of rice. Floristic surveys identified 16 families, 25 genera and 28 species of weeds. In addition, the results showed that Eros Gold had a significant effect with sowing methods on the decrease of sedges and grasses density but more specifically on the abundance-dominance of broadleaf weeds (dicotyledons) before and during heading stages of rice. On family groups, Cyperaceae (15.39 ind/ha), grasses (15.72 ind/ha) and dicotyledons (24.94 ind/ha) are more sensitive to Eros Gold in broadcast sowing than in transplanting mode with 26, 56 ind/ha, 26.50ind / ha and 27.94 ind/ha respectively.


Akobundu O.I, Agyakwa C.W. 1989. Guide to West African weeds. Ibadan (Nigeria): IITA, 522p.

Aminou S. 2016. List of herbicides for sale in Niger, National Network of Chambers of Agriculture of Niger, 9p.

Ayodele O, Olubunmi A. 2017. Weed Management Strategies for Conservation Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria. IOSR J Agric Veter Sci. 10(8): 1-8.

Berhaut J. 1967. Flora of Senegal. 2nd Ed. Dakar, Clairafrique. 485p.

Berhaut J. (1971). Illustrated flora of Senegal. Volume I, II, III, IV, V and VI. Government of Senegal, Dakar.

Boraud M.N.K, Aké-Assi E, Kassi N.J, Aké S, Gasquez J. 2010. Agroecological impact of simulating a transgenic maize crop resistant to glyphosate and repetitive effect of a herbicide treatment on weed flora in Côte d'Ivoir. Sci Nature. 7(1): 41-49.

Boraud N.K.M, Kouame K.F, Kla D. 2015. Impact of weed management practices on rice yield in central Côte d'Ivoire. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 9 (3): 1220-1228.

Botella J. 2005. Assessment of the risk of emergence of resistance to herbicides in rice weeds in the Camargue. ENITAB.

Braun-Blanquet J. 1952. Applied phytosociology. SIGMAT. 116: 157-161.

Diagne M. 1995. Grassing of irrigated rice fields in the middle valley of the Senegal river: current situation and research perspectives. In: Nianga, laboratory of irrigated agriculture in the middle valley of Senegal. Paris: ORSTOM, 189-204. (Colloquia and Seminars). Nianga, Irrigated Culture Laboratory: ORSTOM-ISRA Workshop, Saint-Louis (SEN), 1993/10 / 19-21. ISBN 2-7099-1272-4.

FAO. Rice Market Monitor. 2013. Trade and Markets Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO.

Gueye A.A. 2004. Bibliographic study on the rice sector in Senegal, final report of the regional workshop of the Project to Strengthen Information for Rice Sector Actors in terms of markets and policies (PRIAF-RIZ) Bamako, May 10 to 14, 71p.

Godron M. 1968. Some applications of the concept of frequency in plant ecology. Oecol Plant. 3: 185-212.

Gounot M. 1969. Methods for the quantitative study of vegetation. Ed. Masson et Cie, Paris, France, 314p.

Grard P, Bourgeois L.E, Rodenburg T, Marnotte J, Carrara P, Irakiza A, Makokha R, Kyalo D, Aloys G, Iswaria K, Nguyen K, Tzelepoglou G.  2012. Weed management in lowland rice systems in Africa. AFRO weeds. 1: 1-15.

Hutchinson J, Dalziel J.M. 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2nd ed. CAOGA Publications, London.

ISRA 2012. Upland rice production guide, 36p.ISRA (2012b) - Official catalog of species and varieties cultivated in Senegal.

Ipou Ipou J, Mahamane A, Yapi A.F. 2016. Chemical weed control of crops in Ivory Coast: socio-economic and agricultural issues. AFPP- 23rd COLUMA conference, international days on weed control, Dijon-6, 7 and 8 December 2016.

Johnson D.E. 1997. Weeds in rice cultivation in West Africa. Ed. WARDA / WARDA. 312 p.

Konan Y, Akanvou L, N’Cho S, Arouna A, Eddy B, Kouakou C.K. 2014. Analysis of the technical efficiency of rice farmers in the face of infestation of crops by Striga parasitic species in Côte d'Ivoir. Rev IvoirSci Technol. 23: 212-223.

Kouadio Y.P, Tiébré M.S, Kouassi R.H, Kassi N.J, N’Guessan K.E. 2014. Limits of chemical weed control in industrial banana plantations in Dabou in the south of Côte D’ivoire. American Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 2301-2005 Issue 101 April, 2014, pp. 64-74.

Le Bourgeois T, Grard P, Marnotte P, Rodenburg J. 2014. Improving the management of grass cover in rice fields in Africa by sharing information and helping to identify weeds: the potential of the AFROWeeds collaborative platform. htpp: //, accessed December 12, 2015.

Le Bourgeois T, Merlier H. 1995. Adventrop : weeds from Sudano-Sahelian Africa. Montpellier: CIRAD - CA 637 p.

Le Bourgeois T. 1993. Weeds in the cotton rotation in North Cameroon (Africa) - Range of habitat and degree of infestation - Development cycle. Doctoral thesis, USTL, Montpellier, France. 241 p.

Lebrun J.P, Stork A. 1991-7. Enumeration of flowering plants of Tropical Africa. Vol I, Vol II, Vol III, Vol IV. Ed. Conservatories and botanical gardens of the city of Geneva.

Lebrun J. 1966. Biological forms in tropical vegetation. Bull Soc Bot. 164-175.

Lopes Ovejero R.F, Soares D.J, Oliveira W.S, Fonseca L.B, Berger G.U, Soteres J.K, Christoffoleti P.J. 2013. Residual herbicides inweed management for glyphosateresistant soybean in Brazil. Planta Daninha. 31(4): 947-959.

MAH. 2004. Biliographic study on the rice sector in Senegal. Senegal National Rice Observatory (O.N.R.S), Senegal.

Maillet J. 1981. Evolution of the weed flora in Montpellier under the pressure of cultivation techniques. Doctor's thesis. USTL. Montpellier. 200 p.

Mballo R. 2019. Irrigated rice weed communities in the Senegal River valley: flora structure, habitat range, species infestation levels and improvement of weed management. Single Doctorate Thesis. Ckeikh Anta Diop University of Dakar, 180 p.

Mbaye M.S. 2013. Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br] and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Association: Spatiotemporal arrangement of cultures, structures, dynamics and competition of weed flora and proposal of a technical itinerary. State doctorate thesis. Ckeikh Anta Diop University of Dakar. 236 p.

Mehdizadeh M. 2019. Sensitivity of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to soil residues of imazethapyr herbicide. Int J Agric Environ Food Sci. 3: 46-49.

Merlier H, Montegut J. 1982. Tropical weeds. ORSTOM-GERDAT-ENSH. 490p.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Equipment. 2014. Senegalese Agricultural Pace Acceleration Program (PRACAS) agricultural component of the Emerging Senegal Plan (PSE), 108p.

Ndione Y.C. 2010. Impact of agricultural policies on food security in Senegal. Master's thesis, Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar. 60p.

Noba K. 2002. Weed flora in the south of the Arachidier Basin (Senegal): structure, dynamics and impact on millet and peanut production. State Doctorate Thesis in Plant Biology. Option Weed, FST, UCAD, Dakar. 158 p.

Posner J.L, Crawford E.W. 1991. An agro-economic analysis of field trials from a farming systems research perspective - weed control in rain-fed lowland rice in Senegal. Exp Agricul. 27: 231-241.

Rahman A, Dowsett C.A, Trolove M.R. James T.K. 2014 - Soil residual activity and plant-back periods for the herbicides saflufenacil and topramezone. AgResearch, Ruakura research centre, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Raunkier C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical Plants Geography. Ed. Clarendron, Press, Oxford. 623p.

Rodenburg J, Johnson D.E. 2009. Weed Management in Rice‐Based Cropping Systems in Africa.  Adv Agron. 103 : 149-218.

Rodenburg J, Zossou‐Kouderin N, Gbèhounou G, Ahanchede A, Touré A, Kyalo G, Kiepe P. 2011. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa, a parasitic weed threatening rain‐fed lowland rice production in sub‐Saharan Africa ‐ A case study from Benin. Crop Prot. 30(10): 1306‐1314.

Saito K, Azoma K, Rodenburg J. 2010. Plant characteristics associated with weed competitiveness of rice under upland and lowland conditions in West Africa. Field Crops Res. 116: 308-317.

Sylla M, Traore K, Soro D, Yode T.E.G. 2017. Assessment of weed management practices in irrigated rice cultivation in the locality of Daloa, center-west of the Ivory Coast. African Agron. 29(1): 49-64.

Traore H, Maillet J. 1992. Flore adventice des cultures céréalières annuelles du Burkina-Faso. Weed Res. 32: 279-293.