Document Type : Original Article


1 Rice Breeding Platform, International Rice Research Institute, Manilla-1301, Philippines.

2 Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh.

3 Department of Agriculture and Food, 75 York Road, Northam 6401, Australia.

4 Agricultural Sciences, Murdoch University, South St, WA 6150, Australia.


The composition of weed species and the distribution of weed seeds in the soil profile vary significantly and closely correlated to the previous cropping system. Information on the effect of tillage types, crop residue mulching and crop rotation on the soil weed seedbank is a useful tool for sustainable weed management in conservation agriculture (CA). With the view to studying the trend of weed seedbank in CA, a net-house experiment was conducted at the Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University during January - December, 2016. Soil samplings were done at 0 - 15 cm depth from four different sites after the end of CA trials at Mymensingh and Baliaknadi during 2012 - 2015 and Durgapur and Godagari in 2010-2015, in Bangladesh. At Mymensingh, conventional tillage (CT) and strip tillage (ST), while at Durgapur and Godagari, additional bed planting (BP) were practiced.  On the other hand, at Baliakandi additional Zero tillage (ZT) was included. At all sites 20% and 40 - 50% of standing mulches of previous crops were applied. A total of 290 samples replicated four times were placed in individual trays following a completely randomized design. The year-round headcount of emerged weed revealed that the smallest size of weed seedbank in terms of weed species composition and weed density was found in ST followed by CT, BP, and ZT with 40 - 50% crop mulch than 20% mulch. The ST, BP, and ZT produced a higher number of perennials weeds than annual weeds, but opposite in CT. Based on the results, it could be concluded that the continuous practice of ST with 40 - 50% residue mulch declined the size of weed seedbank with the proliferation of perennial weeds. Weed seedbank size in ST is even smaller than BP and ZT.


Aweto A.O. 2013. Ecological succession theory and models. in: Aweto A.O. (Ed), Shifting Cultivation and Secondary Succession in the Tropics. CABI Publications, Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 116-130.
Baldos O.C, DeFrank J, Sakamoto G. 2008. Pre- and post-emergence herbicide tolerance of Fimbristylis cymosa. Horttech. 22(1): 126-130.
Barberi P, Lo Cascio B. 2001. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on weed seedbank size and composition. Weed Res. 41: 325–340.
Barroso J, Navarrete L, Sánchez del Arco M, Fernandez-Qunitanilla C, Lutman P, Perry N, Hull R. 2006. Dispersal of Avena fatua and A. sterilis patches by natural dissemination, soil tillage and combine harvesters. Weed Res. 46: 118-128.
Begum M, Juraimi A.S, Rastan S.O.B.S, Rajan A, Man A.B. 2006. Seedbank and seedling emergence characteristics of weeds in rice field soils of the muda granary area in north-west peninsular Malaysia. Biotrop. 13(1): 11-21.
Bell R, Haque M, Jahiruddin M, Rahman M, Begum M, Miah M, Islam M, Hossen M, Salahin N, Zahan T, Hossain M, Alam M, Mahmud M. 2018. Conservation agriculture for rice-based intensive cropping by smallholders in the Eastern Gangetic Plain. Agric. 9(1): 5-22.
Blubaugh C.K, Kaplan I. 2015. Tillage compromises weed seed predator activity across developmental stages. Biol Control. 81: 76-82.
Boscutti F, Sigura M, Gambon N, Lagazio C, Krüsi B.O, Bonfanti P. 2015. Conservation tillage affects species composition but not species diversity. J Environ Manage. 55: 443-452.
Brammer H. 1996. The Geography of the Soils of Bangladesh, first ed. Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Cardina J, Herms C.P, Doohan D.J. 2002. Crop rotation and tillage systems effects on weed seedbank. Weed Sci. 50: 448-460.
Chancellor R.J. 1966. The Identification of weed seedlings of farm and garden, first ed. Oxford, England.
Conklin A.E, Erich M.S, Liebman M, Lambert D, Gallandt E.R, Halteman W.A. 2002. Effects of red clover green manure and compost soil amendments on wild mustard growth and incidence of disease. Plant Soil. 238: 245-256.
Curran W.S. 2016. Persistence of herbicides in soil. Crops Soils. 49(5): 16–21.
Erenstein O, Laxmi V. 2008. Zero tillage impacts in India’s rice-wheat systems: a review. Soil Tillage Res. 100: 1-14.
Fonteyne S, Singh R.G, Govaerts B, Verhulst N. 2020. Rotation, mulch and zero tillage reduce weeds in a long-term conservation agriculture trial. Agron. 10(7): 962-978.
Gallandt E.R, Fuerst E.P, Kennedy A.C. 2004. Effect of tillage, fungicide seed treatment and soil fumigation on seedbank dynamics of wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci., 52: 597-604.
Gauvrit C, Chauvel B. 2010. Sensitivity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia to glufosinate and glyphosate at various development stages. Weed Res. 50: 503-510.
Hossain M.I, Sarker M.J.U, Haque M.A. 2015. Status of conservation agriculture-based tillage technology for crop production in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Agric Res. 40(2): 235-248.
Javaid M.M, Tanveer A, Ahmad R, Yaseen M, Khaliq A. 2012. Optimizing activity of herbicides at reduced rate on Emex spinosa with adjuvants. Planta Daninha. 30(2): 425-435.
Kassam A, Friedrich T, Derpsch R. 2019. Global spread of conservation agriculture. Int J Environ Stud. 76(1): 29–51.
Kleemann S.G, Gurjeet G. 2013. Seed dormancy and seedling emergence in ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus) populations in Southern Australia. Weed Sci. 61: 22-29.
Manici L.M, Caputo F, Babini V. 2004. Effect of green manure on Pythium spp. population and microbial communities in intensive cropping systems. Plant Soil. 263: 133-142.
Mohler C.L. 2001. Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. Cambridge, UK.
Moonen A.C, Barberi P. 2004. Size and composition of the weed seedbank after 7 years of different cover crops-maize management systems. Weed Res. 44: 163–177.
Nichols V, Verhulst N, Cox R, Govaerts B. 2015. Weed dynamics and conservation agriculture principles: A review. Field Crops Res. 183: 56-68.
Opeña J.L, Chauhan B.S, Baltazar A.M. 2014. Seed germination ecology of Echinochloa glabrescens and its implication for management in rice (Oryza sativa L.). PLoS One, 9(3): 1-13.
Owen M.J, Goggin D.E, Powles S.B. 2015. Intensive cropping systems select for greater seed dormancy and increased herbicide resistance levels in Lolium rigidum. Pest Manag Sci. 71: 966-971.
Oziegbe M, Faluyi J.O, Oluwaranti A. 2010. Effect of seed age and soil texture on the germination of some Ludwigia species (Onagraceae) in Nigeria. J Univ Zagreb. 69(2): 249-257.
Pittelkow C.M, Liang X, Linquist B.A, Van Groenigen K.J, Lee J, Lundy M.E, van Gestel N, Six J, Venterea R.T, van Kessel C. 2015. Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture. Nature. 517: 365-368.
Rinella M.J, Hagerkamp M.R, Masters R.A, Muscha J.M, Bellows S.E, Vermeire L.T. 2010. Growth regulator herbicides prevent invasive annual grass seed production. Invasive Plant Sci Manag. 3: 12-16.
Sanyal D, Bhowmik P.C, Anderson R.L, Shrestha A. 2008. Revisiting the perspective and progress of integrated weed management. Weed Sci. 56: 161-167.
Singh R, Pramanick B, Singh A.P, Neelam, Kumar S, Kumar A, Singh G. 2017. Bio-efficacy of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl for grassy weed control in onion and its residual effect on succeeding maize crop. India J Weed Sci.49(1): 63-66.
Taa A, Tanner D, Bennie A.T. 2004. Effects of stubble management, tillage and cropping sequence on wheat production in the south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Soil Tillage Res. 76: 69-82.
Tanveer A, Nadeem M.A, Ali A, Tahir M, Zamir M.S.I. 2009. Germination behavior of seeds from herbicide treated plants of Chenopodium album L. Ann Brazilian Aca Sci. 81(4): 873-879.
Tuesca D, Puricelli E, Papa J. 2001. A long-term study of weed flora shifts in different tillage systems. Weed Res. 41: 369-382.
White S.S, Renner K.A, Menalled F.D, Landis D.A. 2007. Feeding preferences of weed seed predators and effect on weed emergence. Weed Sci. 55: 606-612.
Woźniak A. 2018. Effect of tillage system on the structure of weed infestation of winter wheat. Span J Agric Res. 16(4): 1-7.
Wu H, Walker S, Rollin M.J, Tan D.K.Y, Robinson G, Werth J. 2007. Germination, persistence, and emergence of flaxleaf fleabane (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist). Weed Biol Manag.7: 192-199.