Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Plant Science, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

2 Bayer Zambia Limited, P.O. Box 37131, Lusaka, Zambia

3 Seed Control and Certification Institute, P.O. 350199, Chilanga, Zambia

Abstract

Weeds in agriculture are responsible for yield reduction and poor crop quality if not controlled. In maize production, new user-friendly herbicides are being adopted by smallholder farmers. Stellar star whose active ingredients are Topramezone and Dicamba is a selective, systemic post-emergence herbicide used in maize. This poses a threat to crop rotation, especially legumes, due to residual effects. Therefore, the study was carried out to evaluate the phytotoxicity effect of Topramezone and Dicamba herbicide on selected legumes. The trials were conducted in the field and greenhouse. Topramezone and Dicamba herbicide was applied at 4 rates (0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 L ha-1) while legumes were planted at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days residual period. The experimental designs used were CRD for the greenhouse trial and split-split plot design for the field experiment, replicated three and two times respectively. Phytotoxicity effects on legumes were highest at 0, 30 and 60 days residual periods. The coefficient of determination (R2) indicated 96-100% variation in the relationship between days and plant stand count. 4 L ha-1 had the worst average phytotoxicity score of 98%, with control having the lowest at 0%. Results showed whitish, greyish, pale germinated plants which mostly dried after 3 to 5 days. There were highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) amongst the treatment means for all parameters.  This means that within 120 days residual period, legumes under study should not be rotated with maize as the herbicide has phytotoxicity effects both at varying application rates and residual period.

Keywords

Aransiola E. F, Ehinmitola E. O, Adebimpe A. I, Shittu T. D, Solomon D. O. 2019. Prospects of biodiesel feedstock as an effective eco-fuel source and their challenges. Woodhead publishing series in Energy. Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.

Ayodele O. and Olubunmi A. 2017. Weed Management Strategies for Conservation Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria. IOSR-JAVS Volume 10 (8): 1 – 8.

Barber T. 2016. Dicamba effects on soybeans seed and offspring. Division of Agriculture, Research and Extension. University of Arkansas system.

Bari M. N. 2012. Evaluation of herbicide use in Bangladesh agriculture with special reference to wetland rice. Krishi Gobeshona Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Damalas C. A, Gitsopoulos T. K, Koutroubas S. D and Georgoulas I. 2015. Annual grasses control with topramezone in mixture with ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Democritus University of Thrace.

Gallandt E. R. and Weiner J. 2015. Crop-Weed Competition. Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Grossmann K. and Ehrhardt T. 2007. On the mechanism of action and selectivity of the corn herbicide Topramezone: a new inhibitor of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. PMS 63, 429-439.

Harp P. R. 2010.  Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition). University of California, USA. 

Jiddimani L, Chandranath H. T. and Chogatapur S. V (2017). Phytotoxicity Ratings and Weed Control Ratings as Influenced by Chemical Weed Control Treatments in Greengram (Vigna radiata L.). J. Pure App Biosci 5(5): 1578-1581

Mehdizadeh M. 2019. Sensitivity of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to soil residues of imazethapyr herbicide. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences. 3: 46-49.

Mehdizadeh M, Alebrahim M.T, Roushani M, Streibig J.C. 2016. Evaluation of four different crops’ sensitivity to sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl soil residues. Acta Agric Scand B Soil Plant Sci. 66: 706-713.

Neve P. and Powles S. B. 2005. Recurrent selection with reduced herbicide rates results in the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in Lolium rigidum. TAG 110, 1154-1166.

Nishimura J, Gazzo K. and Budd R. 2015. Environmental Fate and Toxicology of Dicamba. Department of Pesticide Regulation, Environmental Protection Agency, California. 

Nkhoma S, Kalinda T. and Kuntashula E. 2017. Adoption and Impact of Conservation Agriculture on Smallholder Farmers’ Crop Productivity and Income in Luapula Province, Zambia. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zambia. Journal of Agricultural Science; 9 (9): 168-170.

Rahman A, Dowsett C. A, Trolove M. R. and James T. K. 2014. Soil residual activity and plant-back periods for the herbicides saflufenacil and topramezone. AgResearch, Ruakura research centre, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Rana S. S. 2018. Selectivity of herbicides and factors affecting it. Published by Department of Agronomy. CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Palampur, India.

Wang H, Lui W, Zhao K, Yu H, Zhang J. and Wang J. 2018. Evaluation of Weed control efficacy and crop safety of the new HPPD – inhibiting herbicide. Scientific Report 8, 7910.