Document Type : Original Article


1 Njala Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Njala. Sierra Leone

2 Crop Protection Department, School of Agriculture, Njala University. Sierra Leone


A two-year (2017 and 2018) field trials was conducted in the School of Agriculture, Njala University, Sierra Leone, to evaluate weed management practices on weed dynamics and productivity of maize. The experimental trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatment combinations comprised of weedy check (Control), two hoe weeding at 4 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP), Double force® at 4 L ha-1 plus one hoe weeding at 8 WAP, Gliricidia sepium leaves mulch at 40 kg m-2 plus one hoe weeding at 8 WAP, weed-free check and Atrazine 500 SC at 3 L ha-1 plus one hoe weeding at 8 WAP. The results showed that growth and yield physiognomies differ significantly (P<0.05) among weed control practices across both years. The weed-free check treatment recorded the highest growth and yield physiognomies with respect to reduced weed density and increased weed control efficiency followed by herbicidal treatments, while weedy check had the lowest growth and yield attributes across both years. Nonetheless weed-free check required lot of labour force which was not economical to the farmer’s point of judgment. Thus, Double force® at 4 L ha-1 plus one hoe weeding at 8 WAP proved to be better in controlling weeds, increasing crop yield and economical compared with other weed management practices. Hence Double force® at 4 L ha-1 plus one hoe weeding at 8 WAP was recommended as a pre-emergence herbicide in maize production for effective and environmentally friendly weed control method.


Abana P.C, Godwin O. 2015. Screening of selected herbicides for weed control in maize Zea mays L. J. Environ and Earth Sci. 5(2): 53-56.
Achieng J.O, Ouma G, Odhiambo G, Muyekho F.  2010. Effect of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers on maize production on Alfisols and Utisols in Kakamega, Western Kenya. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 1 (4): 430-439.
Ajani E.N, Onwubuya E.A. 2012. Assessment of use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in Anambra state, NigeriaInt. J. Agril. Res. Innov. & Tech. 2(2): 48-53.
Alhassan J.1, Dadari S.A, Babaji B.A, Shebayan, J.A. Y. 2015. Weed Control Efficiency of Management Practices of Lowland Paddy Production in Sudan Savanna Ecology. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 5(16).
Ali K, Munsif F, Husain Z, Khan I, Ahmed N, Khan N, Shahid M. 2011.  Effect of different weed control methods on weeds and maize grain yield. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res. 17(4): 313-321.
Azmi M, Baki B.B. 2002. Impact of continuous direct seeding rice culture on weed species diversity in the Malaysian rice ecosystem. Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Environment and Natural Resources, Hotel Renaissance Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1:61−67.
Barad B, Mathukia R.K, Gohil B.S, Chhodavadia S.K. 2016. Integrated weed management in rabi popcorn (Zea mays var. everta). Journal of Crop and Weed. 12: 150–153.
Boydston R.A. 2010. Managing weeds in potato rotations without herbicides. American J Potato Res. 87: 420-427.
Cadoni P, Angelucci F. 2013. Analysis of incentives and disincentives for Rice in Nigeria. Technical notes series, MAFAP, FAO, Rome.
Chanda S.V, Singh Y.D. 2002. Estimation of Leaf Area In Wheat Using Linear Measurements. Plant Breeding and Seed Science. 46(2):75-79.
Chapagain, 2010. Effects of integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) practices on the sustainability of maize-based hill farming systems in Nepal. J. Agric. Sci. 2 (3): 26-32.
Chikoye D, Lum A.F, Udensi U.E. 2010. Efficacy of a new glyphosate formulation for weed control in maize in southwest Nigeria. Crop Protection, 29, 947-952.
Chulze, 2010. Strategies to reduce mycotoxin levels in maize during storage: a review. Food Additives and Contaminants, 27, 5, 651-657. Corn Starch Market in India 2010.
Dobariya V.K, Mathukia R.K, Gohil B.S, Shivran A. 2015. Integrated weed management in rabi sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). Journal of Eco-friendly Agriculture 10: 70–73.
Egbe E. A, Fonge B.A, Mokake S.E, Besong M, Fongod A.N. 2012. The effects of green manure and NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in the mount Cameroon region. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 3 (3); 82-92.
Essien B.A, Essien J.B, Nwite J.C, Eke K.A, Anaele N.M, Ogbu J.U. 2009. Effect of organic mulch materials on maize performance and weed growth in the derived savanna of south eastern Nigeria. Niger. Agric. J. 40(1): 255-262
Evans-Galea M.V,  Blankman E,  Myszka D.G,  Bird A.J,  Eide D.J,  Winge D.R. 2003. Two of the Five Zinc Fingers in the Zap1 Transcription Factor DNA Binding Domain Dominate Site-Specific DNA Binding.Biochemistry. 42(4): 1053–1061.
FAO. 2011. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 10 August, 2013 from
FAO. 2012.  Decent rural employment for food security: a case for action. Rome.
FAOSTAT. 2015. Statistical databases and data-sets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed 02 Jan 2015.
Gul S, Irshad F, Zaman K. 2011. Factors affecting bank Profitability in Pakistan. The Romanian Economic J. 39, 61-87.
Hassan G, Tanveerl S, Khanand N.U, Munir M. 2010. Integrating cultivars with reduced herbicide Rates for weed management in maize. Pak J Bot 42: 1923- 1929.
Hawaldar S, Agasimani C.A. 2012.  Effect of herbicides on weed control and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 25: 137-139.
Hussain J, Khan A.L, Rehman N, Hamayun M, Shah T, Nisar Bano T, Shinwari Z.K, Lee I.J. 2009. Proximate and nutrient analysis of selected vegetable species: A case study of Karak Region Pakistan. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 8(12): 2725-2729
IITA, 2005. The Nigerian cassava Industry: statistical Handbook.
Imoloame E.O, Omolaiye J.O. 2016. Impact of different periods of weed interference on the groth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 93, 245–257.
Imoloame E.O, Joshua S.D, Gworgwor N.A. 2010. Evaluation of Post-Emergence Herbicides for Weed Control in Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) in the Sudan Savanna Zone of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 23, 73-74.
Kamble T.C, Kakade S.U, Nemade S.U, Pawar R.V, Apotikar V.A. 2005. An integrated weed management in hybrid maize. Crop Res. Hisar. 29(3): 396-400.
Khan M.A, Marwat K.B, Hassan G, Khan N. 2002. Impact of weed management on maize(Zea mays L.) planted at night. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res. 8(1-2): 57-61.
Khan B.A, Bakhtiar G, Muhammad S, Zahid H. 2005. Efficacy of different herbicides for controlling weeds in onions in higher altitudes. Weed Science Society of Pakistan, 11(1-2), 61-68.
Khan W.K, Khan N, Khan I.A. 2012. Integration of nitrogen fertilizer and herbicides for efficient weed management in Z.mays crop. Sarhad J Agri. 2012; 28:457-63.
Khurshid K, Iqbal M, Arif M.S, Nawaz A.  2006. Effect of tillage and mulch on soil physical properties and growth of maize. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8(5):593-596.
Koprivlenski V, Dimitrova M, Zhalnov I. 2015. Economic evaluation of new herbicides for weed control in maize grain.Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 21: 315–319.
Kumar B, Prasad S, Mandal D, Kumar R. 2017. Influence of integrated weed management practices on weed dynamics, productivity and nutrient uptake of rabi maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science 6: 1431–1440.
Larbi E, Ofosu-Anim J, Norman J.C, Anim-Okyere S, Danso F. 2013. Growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in response to herbicide application in the coastal savannah ecozone of Ghana. J. Agric. Sci. 1 (3), 81-86.
Lelei J.J, Onwonga R.N, Freyer B. 2009. Organic based nutrient management strategies: effect on soil nutrient availability and maize (Zea mays L.) performance in Njoro, Kenya.
MAFFS/NARCCR, (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security) / (National Agricultural Research Coordinating Council) 2005. Crop production guidelines for Sierra Leone. 104 pp.
Mahadi M.A, Dadari S.A, Mahmud M, Babaji B.A, Mani H. 2007. Effect of some rice-based herbicides on yield and yield components of maize. Crop prot. 26, 1601- 1605
Makumba W, Akinnifesi K, Janssen B. 2007. Long-term impact of a Gliricidia-maize intercropping system on carbon sequestration in southern Malawi. Agriculture ecosystem and Environment, 118, 237-243,
Mandumbu R, Jowah P, Karavina C, Tibugari H. 2011. Integrated weed management in Zimbabwe's smallholder sector, where are we? A review. Modern Applied Science, 5(5), 111-117.
Mathukia R.K, Dobariya V.K, Gohil B.S, Chhodavadia S.K. 2014. Integrated weed management in rabi sweet corn (Zea mays L. var.Saccharata). Advances in Crop Science and Technology 2: 139-141.
Mehmeti A.A, Demaj I, Demelezi Rudari H. 2012. Effect of Post-Emergence Herbicides on Weeds and Yield of Maize. Pak J Weed Sci Res 18: 27-37.
Mukherjee P.K, Rahaman S, Maity S.K, Sinha B. 2012. Weed management practices in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) J Crop Weed 8(1): 178-180
Muoni T, Rusinamhodzi L, Thierfelder C. 2013. Weed control in conservation agriculture systems of Zimbabwe: Identifying economical best strategies. Crop Prot. 53(0), 2328.
Namakha A, Bubakar I.U, Sadik I.A, Sharifai A.I, Hassas A.H. 2008. Effect of sowing date and nitrogen level on yield and yield components of two extra early maize varieties (Zea mays L.) in Sudan Savanna of Nigeria. ARPN, J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 3 (2): 15.
Okoruwa V.O, Obadaki F.O, Ibrahim G. 2005. "Profitability of beef cattle farming fattening in the cosmopolitan city of Ibadan, Oyo State". Moor Journal of Agricultural Research 6(1): pp. 45-5.
Onasanya R.O, Aiyelari O.P, Onasanya A, Oikeh S, Nwilene F.E, Oyelakin O.O. 2009. Growth and yield response of maize (Zea mays L.) to different rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in Southern Nigeria.
Patel V.J, Upadhyaya P.N, Patel J.B, Meisuriya M.I, 2006. Effect of herbicide mixtures on weeds in Kharif maize under middle Gujarat conditions. Indian journal of weed science 38 (1&2):54-57.
Priya H.R, Kubsad V.S. 2013. Integrated weed management in rainy season sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) Indian J Agron 58 (4): 548-553.
Quee D.D, Mansaray A, Kanneh S.M, Kamanda P.J, Conteh A.R, Ndoko E.J, Serry K. 2017. Effect of Gliricidia sepium Leaf Mulch on Weed Growth and Productivity of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Southern Sierra Leone. I. J. of Agric. and Forestry. DOI: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20170702.01.
Ram P, Sreenivas G, Leela Rani P. 2017. Impact of sustainable weed management practices on growth, phenology and yield of rabi grain maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6: 701-710.
Ramzan M, Khan G.D, Hanif M, Ali S. 2012. Impact of tillage and soil compaction on the yield of corn (Zea mays L.) under irrigated conditions. Middle-East J. Sci. Res. 11(3):pp. 382-385.
Sale F.A. 2009. Allelopathic influence of Acacia auriculiformis, Eucalptus citriodora and Gliricidia sepium on germination, growth and yield of millet (Panicum miliaceum L.).
Sarma C.K, Gautam R.C. 2010. Weed growth, yield and nutrient uptake in maize (Zea mays) as influenced by tillage, seed rate and weed control methods. Indian J. Agron. 55 (4): 299-303.
Sepahvand P, Sajedi N, Mousavi S.K, Ghiasvand M. 2014. Effect of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components. Pak. J. Boil. Sci. 17 (4), 497-503.
Shah S.T.H, Zamir M.S.I, Waseem M, Ali A, Tahir M, Khalid W. B. 2009. Growth and yield response of maize (Zea mays L.) to organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen. Pak. J. Life Soc. Sci., 7 (2): 108-111.
Shankar K.A, Yogeesh L.N, Prashanth S.M, Channabasavanna A.S, Channagoudar R.F. 2015. Effect of weed management practices on weed growth and yield of maize. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 4: 1540–1545.
Shiferaw B, Prasanna B, Hellin J, Banziger M. 2011. Feeding a hungry world: past successes and future challenges to global food security in maize. Food Security 3: 307-327.
Shinggu C.P, Dadari S.A, Shebava I.A.Y, Adekpe D.I, Mahadi M.A, Mukhtar A, Asala S.W. 2009. Influence of spacing and seed rate on weed suppression in finger millet (Eleucine carocana gaertn). Middle East J. Scient. Res. 4 (4):267-270.
Sileshi G, Akinnifesi F.K, Ajayi O.C, Chakeredza S, Kaonga M, Matakala P. 2007. Contribution of agroforestry to ecosystem services in the miombo eco-region of eastern and southern African, Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 1, 68–80.
Singh K.N, Ara S, Wani G.A, Hasan B, Khanday B.A. 2007. A phytosociological association of weeds in winter crops of Kasmir valley. India Journal of Weed Science 39: 33-40.
Singh S.P, Yadav R.S, Kumawat A, Bairwa R.C. 2018. Weed control in green gram (Vigna radiata) and its residual effect on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Indian Society of Agronomy. 2018; 63:21-25.
Subbulakshmi S, Subbian P, Prabhakaran N.K. 2009. Effect of tillage and weed management practices on performance of maize sunflower. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5: 35–39
Sulewska H.W, Koizara, Panasiewicz K.  2006. Efficiency of herbicides treatment Chwastox Turbo 340 SL and Dual 960 EC in maize grain weed control. Progress in Plant Protection, 2006. 46: 240-242.
Talebbeigi R.M, Ghadiri H. 2012. Effects of Cowpea Living Mulch on Weed Control and Maize Yield. J. BIOL. ENVIRON. SCI., 2012, 6(17), 189-193
Thierfelder C, Wall P. 2009. Investigating conservation agriculture (CA) systems in Zambia and Zimbabwe to mitigate future effects of climate change. J. of Crop Imp. 24(2), 113-121.
Ullah 2008. "Testing of Conditional Uncorrelatedness" (with L. Su), Journal of Business Economics and Statistics. 27: 18-29.
Ulloa S.M, Datta A, Bruening C, Neilson B, Miller J, Gogos G, Knezevic S.Z. 2011. Maize response to broadcast flaming at different growth stages: effects on growth, yield and yield components. Eur J Agron. 34:10–19.
Uwah D.F, Eneji A.E, Eshietu U.J. 2011. Organic and mineral fertilizers on the performance of sweet maize (Zea mays L. Saccharata Strut.) in South Rainforest zone of Nigeria. International Journal of agricultural Science 3 (1): 5461.
Waheedullah M.A, Khan S, Arifullah, Sadiq M. 2008. Evaluation of Integrated weed management practices for maize (Zea mays L.). Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res. 14(1-2): 19-32.
Wszelaki A.L, Doohan D.J, Alexandrou A. 2007. Weed control and crop quality in cabbage (Brassica oleracea (capitata group)] and tomato (Lycopersiconlycopersicum) using a propane flamer. Crop Prot. 26: 134-144.
Xue L-L, Wang L-Ch, Anjum Sh. A, Saleem M. F, Bao M-Ch, Saeed A, Bilal M.F. 2013. Gas exchange andmorpho-physiological response of soybean to straw mulching under drought conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology 12(18): 2360-2365.